Review 2

Chapters 5 and 6 of the textbook covers propertied of fluids (liquids and gases) at rest and in motion and the forces those fluids exert on objects submerged in them.


Fluids in general  
P = F/A pressure = force/area
ρparticle = N/V,  ρ = M/V particle density = number of particles/volume, density = mass/volume
Ideal gas: PV = N*k*T Ideal gas law:  pressure * volume = number of particles * Boltzmann constant * absolute temperature
B = w Buoyant force = weight of the displace fluid
Incompressible fluids, laminar flow  
In a pipe: A1*v1 = A2*v2 Equation of continuity:  (Area 1)*(velocity 1)  = (Area 2)*(velocity 2)
P + ρgh + ρv2 = constant Bernoulli's equation:  pressure + density*g*height + *density velocity2 = constant
F/A = ηv0/d Definition of viscosity η: 
Volume flow rate = pi*(pressure difference)*(pipe diameter)4/[128*(pipe length)*viscosity)
Turbulent flow  
Reynolds number = density * characteristic length * flow speed /viscosity
Reynolds number > 2300 --> turbulent flow

Let us analyze some real-life situations using what we have learned so far.