Chapters 5 and 6 of the textbook covers propertied of fluids (liquids and gases) at rest and in motion and the forces those fluids exert on objects submerged in them.
|Fluids in general|
|P = F/A||pressure = force/area|
|ρparticle = N/V, ρ = M/V||particle density = number of particles/volume, density = mass/volume|
|Ideal gas: PV = N*k*T||Ideal gas law: pressure * volume = number of particles * Boltzmann constant * absolute temperature|
|B = w||Buoyant force = weight of the displace fluid|
|Incompressible fluids, laminar flow|
|In a pipe: A1*v1 = A2*v2||Equation of continuity: (Area 1)*(velocity 1) = (Area 2)*(velocity 2)|
|P + ρgh + ½ρv2 = constant||Bernoulli's equation: pressure + density*g*height + ½*density velocity2 = constant|
|F/A = ηv0/d||Definition of viscosity η:|
|Volume flow rate = pi*(pressure difference)*(pipe diameter)4/[128*(pipe length)*viscosity)|
|Reynolds number = density * characteristic length * flow speed /viscosity|
|Reynolds number > 2300 --> turbulent flow|
Let us analyze some real-life situations using what we have learned so far.