A monochromatic particle beam consist of particles whose
total energy is 100 times their rest energy. The rest lifetime of the particles
is 0.10 ns. In the laboratory, the distance between the point where the
particles are generated and the detector is 6.0 m.
(a) What is the speed of the particles?
(b) What fraction of the generated particles reaches the detector?
In a proton-proton collision a π+ meson can be created through the reaction
p1 + p2 --> p + n + π+.
In the center of mass (CM) frame of reference each proton
has an initial energy γmpc2, where mp is the
mass of the proton and γ = (1 - β2)-1/2, with β = v/c.
Take the mass of the proton and the mass of the neutron to be 1837 me (me = electron mass) and the mass of the pion to be 273 me = 0.1486 mp.
Determine the minimum value of the initial velocity v for which π+ creation is possible.
A spaceship travels with velocity v = vi
with respect to a space
station. In the frame of the space station a linear structure of
length L = 10 km moves with velocity u = (c/2)j in the positive
y direction. The structure lies in the xy-plane and makes an
angle θ = 7.2o with the x axis?
When viewed from the spaceship,
the structure is aligned with the x-axis.
(a) What is the velocity v of the spaceship (magnitude and direction)?
(b) What is the length of the structure in the frame of the spaceship'?
A pion (mass Mp) decays into a muon (mass Mμ) and a
(a) Find the kinetic energy of the muon in the rest frame of the pion.
(b) The muon is unstable, with a lifetime τ1 in the pion's rest frame. Find the lifetime t0 of the muon in its own rest frame.
An excited nucleus of 57Fe
formed by the radioactive decay of 57Co emits a gamma ray of 1.44 *104 eV. In the process, there is conservation of energy and m0c2
+ hf, where m0c2
is the initial mass of the nucleus and ma0c2
is its mass after the emission of the gamma ray. There is also
conservation of momentum, hf/c
where u is the recoil velocity of the iron nucleus. The energy released by
the reaction is Er = (m0
(a) Show that hf = Er(m0 + ma0)/(2m0) = (1 - Er/(2m0c2))Er.
Thus hf < Er: part of Er goes to the photon, and the other part supplies kinetic energy to the recoiling nucleus.
(b) Set m0 = 57*1.7*10-27 kg, and show that Er/(2m0c2)) ~ 1.3*10-7.
Thus the fraction of the available energy Er that appears as recoil is small.
(c) Mössbauer discovered in 1958 that, with solid iron, a significant fraction of the atoms recoil as if they were locked rigidly to the rest of the solid. This is the Mössbauer effect. If the sample has a mass of 1 gram, by what fraction is the gamma ray energy shifted in the recoil process?
(d) A sample of normal 57Fe absorbs gamma rays of 14.4 keV by the inverse recoilless process much more strongly than it absorbs gamma rays of any nearby energy. The excited nuclei thus formed reemit 14.4 keV radiation in random directions some time later. This is resonant scattering. If a sample of activated 57Fe moves in the direction of a sample of normal 57Fe, what must be the value of the velocity v that will shift the frequency of the gamma rays, as seen by the normal nuclei, by 3 parts in 1013? This is one line width.
(e) A Doppler shift in the gamma ray results in a much lower absorption by a nucleus if the shift is of the order of one line width or more. What happens to the counting rate of a gamma-ray detector placed behind the sample of normal 57Fe when the source of activated Fe moves
(i) toward the normal 57Fe,
(ii) away from it?
(f) If a 14.4 keV gamma ray travels 22.5 meters vertically upward, by what fraction will its energy decrease?
[Gravitation redshift, a thought experiment: Suppose a particle of rest mass m is dropped from the top of a tower and falls freely with acceleration g. It reaches the ground with a velocity v = (2gh)1/2, so its total energy E, as measured by an observer at the foot of the tower is E = mc2 + ½mv2 + O(v4) = mc2 + mgh + O(v4).
Suppose an observer has some magical method of converting all this energy into a photon of the same energy. Upon its arrival at the top of the tower with energy E the photon is again magically changed into a particle of rest mass m' = E'/c. Energy conservation requires that m' = m.
Therefore E'/E = mc2/(mc2 + mgh + O(v4)) = (1 + gh/c2 + O(v4))-1 = 1 - gh/c2 + O(v4).]
(g) A normal 57Fe absorber located at this height must move in what direction and at what speed in order for resonant scattering to occur?