A particle in a spherical potential is known to be in an eigenstate of L^{2}
and L_{z} with eigenvalues l(l + 1)ħ^{2} and mħ, respectively.
Prove that the expectation values between |l m> states satisfy

<L_{x}> = <L_{y}> = 0, <L_{x}^{2}> = <L_{y}^{2}>
= (l(l + 1)ħ^{2} - m^{2}ħ^{2})/2.

A space scientist proposes to measure the Gravitational constant G by
locating a solid gold sphere of mass 8*10^{4} kg and radius 1 m in a
spaceship. A hole is to be drilled through the diameter of the sphere and
a small gold ball of mass 80 gram is released from rest at its surface so that it
oscillates back and forth within the tube passing through the large sphere.

(a) Calculate the period of the oscillatory motion of the particle,
assuming that there is no friction present.

(b) If air friction is
present so that the particle returns to a radial distance of 99 cm rather than
to 100 cm at the end of one full oscillation, obtain an estimate of the
frictional force (assumed to be of form **F**_{f} = -b**v**), and
the change in period caused by the frictional force.

An electron is a rest in magnetic field **B** = B_{0} **k** + B_{1}(cos(ωt)
**i** + sin(ωt) **j**). B_{0}, B_{1}, and ω are
constants. At t = 0 the electron is in the |+> eigenstate of S_{z}.
Let **μ** = -γ**S** be the magnetic moment of the electron and ω_{0}
= γB_{0}, ω_{1} = γB_{1} be constants.

(a)
Construct the Hamiltonian matrix for this system and write down the
time-dependent Schroedinger equation,

iħ

∂α/∂t | ||

∂β/∂t |

= H(t)

α | ||

β |

.

in matrix form in the {|+>, |->} basis.

(b) Convert this equation into a "Schroedinger equation"
with a time independent "Hamiltonian" by choosing new expansion coefficients

a(t) = exp(iωt/2)α(t), b(t) = exp(-iωt/2)β(t).

(Hint: Given
∂α/∂t and ∂β/∂t find ∂a/∂t and ∂b/∂t.)

(c) Find the eigenvalues and
eigenvectors if the "Hamiltonian" in part (b).

Hint: Write

H' = A

cosθ | sinθ | ||

sinθ | -cosθ |

.

The eigenvalues of the matrix are λ = ±1, and the
corresponding eigenvectors are

|ψ_{+}> = cos(θ/2)|+> +
sin(θ/2)|->, |ψ_{-}> = -sin(θ/2)|+> + cos(θ/2)|->.]

(d)
The Schroedinger equation now implies that

U(t,0)|ψ_{+}> = |ψ_{+}>exp(-iAλ_{+}t/ħ),
and U(t,0)|ψ_{-}> = |ψ_{-}>exp(-iAλ_{-}t/ħ).

Find the
probability of finding the electron in the |-> eigenstate of S_{z} as a
function of time.

(a) Find the magnetic field at any point in the x-y
plane for y > 0 due to a wire of length l carrying a current I from x = 0
to x = l along the x-axis.

(b) Use the result of (a) to find the self inductance of a square current loop of
side l. You may leave your result as a definite integral, but the limits must be
specified and the integrand must be in terms of the dimensions of the loop, constants, and
the variables being integrated.

(c) A conducting square current loop of side l with sides parallel to the x- and y-axis
has resistance R and self inductance L. It moves at a speed v in the +x-direction. The loop passes through a magnetic field given by
**B** = B_{0} **k**, -l/2< x < l/2, B = 0 elsewhere. Find the current in the
wire as a function of time assuming that I = 0 a long time before the loop reaches
the magnetic field.

At t = 0 the x-component of the spin of a
spin ½ particle is measured and found to be ħ/2. At t = 0 the particle is
therefore in the |+>_{x} eigenstate of the S_{x} operator. The
particle is confined to a region with a uniform magnetic field B = B_{0}k,
its Hamiltonian is H = ω_{0}S_{z}. The eigenstates of H are |+>
and |->,

H|+> = (ħω_{0}/2)|+> and H|-> = -(ħω_{0}/2)|->.

|+>_{x} can be written as a linear combination of eigenstates of H.

(a) Find the probability of measuring S_{x} = ħ/2 at t = T.

(b) What is the mean value of S_{x}, <S_{x}>, at t = T?

(c) Find the probability of measuring S_{z} = ħ/2 at t = T.