Let A and B be two observables of a system with a two dimensional state space, and suppose measurements are made of A, B, and A again in quick succession. Show that the probability that the second measurement of A gives the same result as the first is independent of the initial state of the system.
Find <x> and ∆x for the nth stationary state of a free particle in one dimension restricted to the interval 0 < x < a. Show that as n--> ∞ these become the classical values.
A system makes transitions between eigenstates of H0
under the action of the time dependent Hamiltonian H0 + Wcosωt, W << H0.
Find an expression for the probability of transition from ||ψ1> to ||ψ2>, where ||ψ1> and ||ψ2> are eigenstates of H0 with eigenvalues E1 and E2.
Show that this probability is small unless E2 - E1 ≈ ħω.
[This shows that a charged particle in an oscillating electric field with angular frequency w will exchange energy with the field only in multiples of E ≈ ħω.]
a one-dimensional system, with momentum operator p and position operator q.
(a) Show that [q,pn] = iħ n pn-1.
(b) Show that [q,F(p)] = iħ ∂F/∂p, if the function F(p) can be defined by a finite polynomial or convergent power series in the operator p.
(c) Show that [q,p2F(q)] = 2iħ pF(q) if F(q) is some function of q only.
baryon number were not conserved in nature, the wave functions for neutrons
(n) and anti-neutrons (n) would not be stationary mass-energy
Rather, the wave functions of such particles would be oscillating, time-dependent superposition of neutron and anti-neutron components, given by
where n = 1,
n = 2.
where n = 1, n = 2.
Suppose that such oscillations occur and the Hamiltonian of the system, neglecting all degrees of freedom except for the one corresponding to the oscillations, is
where E1 = m + U1 and E2 = m +
U2 are energies for n and
individually, and α
is a real mixing amplitude.
In an external magnetic field B, the potential energies are U1 = μ∙B and U2 = -μ∙B where μ ≈ μn = -μn.
Suppose that at time t = 0 the initial state is that of a neutron.
(a) Calculate the time-dependent probability for observing an anti-neutron. Determine the period of oscillation.