The eigenvalue equation
can be put into the form
The solutions to this equation may be written in the form
where f0(r) is a solution of the homogeneous equation and G(r) is a solution of
0 acts only on r
The solutions of are These are two linearly independent solutions of a second order differential equation.
(To verify that these are the solutions use
For a stationary scattering state we might choose f0(r)=eikz and G(r)=G+(r).
If |r'|<<|r| then and
This yields an integral expression for the scattering amplitude fk(q,f).
This procedure can be repeated and yields the Born expansion. The Born approximation is the first term in the Born expansion.
The scattering amplitude in the Born approximation is given by
The scattering amplitude is proportional to the Fourier transform of the potential energy.
is the differential scattering cross section in the Born approximation.
Let As a®0 the potential becomes the Coulomb potential. Then the scattering amplitude in the Born approximation is given by
Choose the coordinate system such that Then
Often you want to know the scattering cross section as a function of the scattering angle and not as a function of the momentum transfer. Let q' be the angle between ki and kf. Then
Let a®0, V0=Z1Z2e2. Then
This is Rutherfords formula. The Born approximation for the Yukawa potential gives Rutherfords formula as a®0. The total cross section skB®¥.The total cross section is infinite, because the Coulomb potential has infinite range.
When is the Born approximation a good approximation?
In the integral we are replacing the exact solution fk(r') by the asymptotic incident wave eikz'. Therefore fk(r') and eikz' should not be too different inside the range of the potential, i.e. in the region where U(r) contributes appreciably to the integral.
We therefore need that . In the high k limit this inequality is easily satisfied because the integrand oscillates rapidly. We can also satisfy the condition if the scattering potential is weak.
For fast electrons we can use the Born approximation. We then have
with q=k'-k, k the incident wave vector and a unit vector pointing in the direction (q,f). (Note the switch in notation.)
Take the limit as l®0.]
where is the atomic scattering form factor.
If we assume that F(q)=1, i.e. that the incoming electron sees a screened nucleus of charge 1, we obtain the Rutherford scattering cross section.